Population pharmacokinetic modelling of the enterohepatic recirculation of diclofenac and rofecoxib in rats
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Br J Pharmacol, Volume 153, Number 5, p.1072-84 (2008)
DOI Name (links to online publication)10.1038/sj.bjp.0707643
Keywords:Administration; Oral; Animals; Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/administration; &; dosage/*pharmacokinetics/pharmacology; Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/administration; &; dosage/*pharmacokinetics/pharmacology; Diclofenac/administration; &; dosage/*pharmacokine
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enterohepatic recirculation (EHC) is a common pharmacokinetic phenomenon that has been poorly modelled in animals. The presence of EHC leads to the appearance of multiple peaks in the concentration-time profile and increased exposure, which may have implications for drug effect and extrapolation across species. The aim of this investigation was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for diclofenac and rofecoxib that describes EHC and to assess its consequence for the pharmacodynamics of both drugs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and rofecoxib was characterized in male rats following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral administration. Blood samples were collected at pre-defined time points after dosing to determine plasma concentrations over time. A parametric approach using nonlinear mixed effects modelling was applied to describe EHC, whilst simulations were used to evaluate its impact on PGE(2) inhibition. KEY RESULTS: For diclofenac, EHC was described by a compartmental model with periodic transfer rate and metabolite formation rate. For rofecoxib, EHC modelling required a conversion compartment with first-order recycling rate and lag time. Based on model predictions, EHC causes an increase of 95% in the systemic exposure to diclofenac and of 15% in the exposure to rofecoxib. In addition, EHC prolongs the inhibition of PGE(2) and increases the duration of the anti-inflammatory effect (24 h for rofecoxib 10 mg kg(-1)) without affecting maximum inhibition. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings show the relevance of exploring EHC in a quantitative manner to accurately interpret pharmacodynamic findings in vivo, in particular when scaling across species.