Diclofenac plasma protein binding: PK-PD modelling in cardiac patients submitted to cardiopulmonary bypass
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Braz J Med Biol Res, Volume 30, Number 3, p.369-74 (1997)
Keywords:Adult; Aged; Analgesia; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Non-Steroidal/*pharmacokinetics; Cardiopulmonary Bypass/*rehabilitation; Diclofenac/*pharmacokinetics; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Protein Binding/*drug effects
Twenty-four surgical patients of both sexes without cardiac, hepatic, renal or endocrine dysfunctions were divided into two groups: 10 cardiac surgical patients submitted to myocardial revascularization and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), 3 females and 7 males aged 65 +/- 11 years, 74 +/- 16 kg body weight, 166 +/- 9 cm height and 1.80 +/- 0.21 m2 body surface area (BSA), and control, 14 surgical patients not submitted to CPB, 11 female and 3 males aged 41 +/- 14 years, 66 +/- 14 kg body weight, 159 +/- 9 cm height and 1.65 +/- 0.16 m2 BSA (mean +/- SD). Sodium diclofenac (1 mg/kg, im Voltaren 75 twice a day) was administered to patients in the Recovery Unit 48 h after surgery. Venous blood samples were collected during a period of 0-12 h and analgesia was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) during the same period. Plasma diclofenac levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. A two-compartment open model was applied to obtain the plasma decay curve and to estimate kinetic parameters. Plasma diclofenac protein binding decreased whereas free plasma diclofenac levels were increased five-fold in CPB patients. Data obtained for analgesia reported as the maximum effect (EMAX) were: 25% VAS (CPB) vs 10% VAS (control), P < 0.05, median measured by the visual analogue scale where 100% is equivalent to the highest level of pain. To correlate the effect versus plasma diclofenac levels, the EMAX sigmoid model was applied. A prolongation of the mean residence time for maximum effect (MRTEMAX) was observed without any change in lag-time in CPB in spite of the reduced analgesia reported for these patients, during the time-dose interval. In conclusion, the extent of plasma diclofenac protein binding was influenced by CPB with clinically relevant kinetic-dynamic consequences.